The main reason for gum diseases is the bacterial dental plaque. If dental plaque is not cleaned by daily brushing and using dental floss, it accumulates on teeth and transforms to a calculus. Harmful secretion produced by the bacterial plaque destroys filaments which tightly attach gum to teeth, gum is separated from tooth and a periodontal pocket occurs. As the disease progresses, periodontal pocket gradually deepens and bacteria spread below the gum line. Then, the bacteria reach the bone and begin to destroy it. If the disease is not treated properly, the teeth become eventually loose and have to be removed.
To be able to prevent Periodontal disease, daily oral care, tooth brushing and use of dental floss are important to remove bacterial dental plaque; however, they may not be sufficient. A dentist needs to clean the dental plaque and calculus which cannot be reached. The health of tooth and gum can be maintained through personal oral hygiene and regular visits (every 6 months) to the dentist.